Nail problems make up about 10 percent of all dermatological conditions.Changes in the nail, such as discoloration or thickening, can signal health problems, including liver and kidney diseases, heart and lung conditions, anemia and diabetes.Fungal infections cause about half of all nail disorders. They are more common in toenails because the toes often are confined to a warm, moist, weight-bearing environment.Other common nail problems include: White spots that appear after an injury to the nail ,Vertical lines, known as splinter hemorrhages, under the nails that are caused by nail injury or certain drugs or diseases, Bacterial infections, most often due to injury, poor skin hygiene, nail biting, finger sucking, or frequent exposure to water, Ingrown toenails, which are caused by improper nail trimming, poor stance, digestive problems, or tight shoes , Warts & tumours.
Nail appearances may be sometimes difficult to diagnose with certainty and care must be taken to ensure correct diagnosis and therefore treatment.The persons are at risk for nail disorders includes : 1.Genetic predisposition ,2. Excessive exposure to water, heat, and humidity, 3.Tight fitting shoes , 4.Chemical damage, 5.Diabetes, 6.Associated Skin diseases,7. Tumors,8. Over manicuring,9. Habits involving picking at the skin surrounding a nail,10 Soil contamination etc. If you have symptoms of a nail disorder, you should visit to a qualified Dermatologist for proper treatment. Dermatologist may prescribe the antifungal or antibacterial medications. Terbinafine, Itraconazole, Fluconazole, Steroids, Antibiotics, Efalizumab (for nail involvement in psoriasis) or MTX or can remove or drain lesions, drain blood clots, and sometimes surgically remove the nail. Sometimes nutritional deficiencies are corrected with the following supplements: multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium., Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus), Omega-3 fish oil. Regenerating a toenail usually takes 8 – 12 months, while regrowing a fingernail takes half as long. Infection relapses or permanent damage sometimes occur.
For the prevention of nail disorders we should 1.Keep your toenails cut short. 2.Making sure the shoes fit properly. 3. Avoid walking barefoot at public showers and swimming facilities. 4. Throw out old, worn footwear. Fingernails grow faster than toenails — especially on your dominant hand.On average, fingernails grow 3.5 milli meters (mm) per month, while toenails grow an average of 1.6 mm per month. Nail growth rates depend on age, time of year, activity level, and heredity.Women’s nails grow more slowly than men’s, except possibly during pregnancy.Nails grow more rapidly in summer than in winter.Nail growth is affected by disease, nutrition, medications, trauma, chronic illness, fever, and the aging process. Keeping the nails clean, dry, and trimmed can help us to avoid some problems. Always we have to avoid the removal of the cuticle, which can cause infection.